Wednesday, September 2, 2020

Comparison Between Mitosis and Meiosis Processes

Examination Between Mitosis and Meiosis Processes Mitosis (alongside the progression of cytokinesis) is the procedure of how an eukaryotic substantial cell, or body cell, isolates into two indistinguishable diploid cells. Meiosis is an alternate sort of cell division that starts with one cell that has the correct number of chromosomes and closures with four cells-haploid cells-that have a large portion of the ordinary number of chromosomes. In a human, practically all phones experience mitosis. The main human cells that are made by meiosis are gametes, or sex cells: the egg or ovum for females and the sperm for guys. Gametes have just a large portion of the quantity of chromosomes as an ordinary body cell since when gametes meld during preparation, the subsequent cell, called a zygote, at that point has the right number of chromosomes. This is the reason posterity are a blend of hereditary qualities from the mother and the dad the dads gamete conveys a large portion of the chromosomes and the moms gamete conveys the other half-and why there is so much hereditary decent variety, even inside families. In spite of the fact that mitosis and meiosis have altogether different outcomes, the procedures are comparative, with only a couple of changes inside the phases of each. The two procedures begin after a cell experiences interphase and duplicates its DNA precisely in the amalgamation stage, or S stage. Now, every chromosome is comprised of sister chromatids held together by a centromere. The sister chromatids are indistinguishable from one another. During mitosis, the phone experiences the mitotic stage, or M stage, just a single time, finishing with two indistinguishable diploid cells. In meiosis, there are two rounds of the M stage, bringing about four haploid cells that arent indistinguishable. Phases of Mitosis and Meiosis There are four phases of mitosis and eight phases in meiosis. Since meiosis experiences two rounds of parting, it is separated into meiosis I and meiosis II. Each phase of mitosis and meiosis has numerous progressions going on in the cell, yet fundamentally the same as, if not indistinguishable, significant occasions mark that stage. Looking at mitosis and meiosis is genuinely simple if these significant occasions are considered: Prophase The primary stage is called prophase in mitosis and prophase I or prophase II in meiosis I and meiosis II. During prophase, the core is preparing to isolate. This implies the atomic envelope needs to vanish and the chromosomes begin to gather. Likewise, the axle begins to shape inside the centriole of the phone that will help with the division of chromosomes during a later stage. These things all occur in mitotic prophase, prophase I and typically in prophase II. Once in a while there is no atomic envelope toward the start of prophase II and more often than not the chromosomes are now dense from meiosis I. There are several contrasts between mitotic prophase and prophase I. During prophase I, homologous chromosomes meet up. Each chromosome has a coordinating chromosome that conveys similar qualities and is typically a similar size and shape. Those sets are called homologous sets of chromosomes. One homologous chromosome originated from the people father and the other originated from the people mother. During prophase I, these homologous chromosomes pair up and some of the time interweave. A procedure brought traverse can occur during prophase I. This is when homologous chromosomes cover and trade hereditary material. Real bits of one of the sister chromatids sever and reattach to the next homolog. The motivation behind traverse is to additionally increment hereditary assorted variety, since alleles for those qualities are presently on various chromosomes and can be set into various gametes toward the finish of meiosis II. Metaphase In metaphase, the chromosomes line up at the equator, or center, of the cell, and the recently shaped axle joins to those chromosomes to plan for pulling them separated. In mitotic metaphase and metaphase II, the shafts join to each side of the centromeres holding the sister chromatids together. Be that as it may, in metaphase I, the shaft appends to the diverse homologous chromosomes at the centromere. Subsequently, in mitotic metaphase and metaphase II, the axles from each side of the cell are associated with a similar chromosome. In metaphase, I, just a single axle from one side of the cell is associated with an entire chromosome. The shafts from inverse sides of the cell are joined to various homologous chromosomes. This connection and arrangement is basic for the following stage. There is a checkpoint around then to ensure it was done accurately. Anaphase Anaphase is the phase wherein the physical parting happens. In mitotic anaphase and anaphase II, the sister chromatids are pulled separated and moved to inverse sides of the cell by the withdrawal and shortening of the shaft. Since the axles joined at the centromere on the two sides of a similar chromosome during metaphase, it basically tears separated the chromosome into two individual chromatids. Mitotic anaphase pulls separated the indistinguishable sister chromatids, so indistinguishable hereditary qualities will be in every cell. In anaphase I, the sister chromatids are in all probability not indistinguishable duplicates since they presumably experienced traverse during prophase I. In anaphase I, the sister chromatids remain together, however the homologous sets of chromosomes are pulled separated and taken to inverse sides of the cell. Telophase The last stage is called telophase. In mitotic telophase and telophase II, the greater part of what was finished during prophase will be fixed. The shaft starts to separate and vanish, an atomic envelope starts to return, chromosomes begin to unwind, and the phone gets ready to part during cytokinesis. Now, mitotic telophase will go into cytokinesis that will make two indistinguishable diploid cells. Telophase II has just gone one division toward the finish of meiosis I, so it will go into cytokinesis to make a sum of four haploid cells. Telophase I could conceivably observe these equivalent kinds of things occurring, contingent upon the phone type. The axle will separate, however the atomic envelope may not return and the chromosomes may remain firmly twisted. Likewise, a few cells will go straight into prophase II as opposed to parting into two cells during a series of cytokinesis. Mitosis and Meiosis in Evolution More often than not, transformations in the DNA of physical cells that experience mitosis won't be passed down to the posterity and in this way are not relevant to normal choice and don't add to the advancement of the species. In any case, botches in meiosis and the irregular blending of qualities and chromosomes all through the procedure add to hereditary decent variety and drive advancement. Traverse makes another blend of qualities that may code for a positive adjustment. The free combination of chromosomes during metaphase I likewise prompts hereditary decent variety. It is arbitrary how homologous chromosome sets line up during that stage, so the blending and coordinating of characteristics have numerous options and add to the assorted variety. At last, irregular preparation likewise can increment hereditary decent variety. Since there are preferably four hereditarily various gametes toward the finish of meiosis II, which one is really utilized during preparation is irregular. As the accessible characteristics are stirred up and gone down, common determination takes a shot at those and picks the most good adjustments as the favored phenotypes of people.

Saturday, August 22, 2020

Russells Treatment of Self-Discovery in Educating Rita :: English Literature

Russell's Treatment of Self-Discovery in Educating Rita (A) RITA: See, I don't need an infant yet. It couldn't be any more obvious, I wanna find meself first. Do you get that? Expound on Russell's treatment of self-disclosure and of its significance in the lives of the play's characters. The possibility of self-disclosure is a topic that runs all through Educating Rita, exhibiting how it tends to be an individual strategic well as an coincidental accomplishment throughout everyday life. Both Frank and Rita, just as the other, progressively minor characters, set out on this excursion as Rita starts her Open University course. When Rita starts her the English Literature course, she is chomping at the bit to go and needs to know everything. She likewise places in words, her individual want for self-disclosure. I wanna find meself. Rita knew from the earliest starting point that she was on a crucial knew where she was going. Straight to the point then again, is very substance with his lifestyle and considers the possibility of a senseless lady's endeavors to get into the psyche of Henry James exceptionally entertaining in spite of the fact that it interrupts the repetitiveness of his conceivably incredibly exhausting and prescient way of life. Russell exhibits the possibility of self-disclosure through Rita by indicating the manner by which Rita has advanced during the play. At the starting, Rita is the guiltless understudy who needs decisions. She feels that she will have the option to escape from the endless loop that exists in regular workers society. The main indications of Rita's disclosure are appeared through her activities. Her first passage is a constrained section into the workplace of Frank, while on her second visit she oils the entryway to make it simpler for her to enter. Inevitably, Russell no longer gives her passage into the workplace however has her as of now there when the scene starts. Honest, gives less indications of self-revelation in spite of the fact that he does truth be told find rather a ton about himself as a result of Rita. Plain has a drinking propensity that he recognizes however he hides its indications furthermore, when Rita believes she's improved him he discovers it profoundly entertaining. Albeit Frank doesn't in certainty stop drinking, he gets more regrettable and it is a definitive purpose behind his holiday to Australia. On the other hand, Frank's relationship with his previous understudy Julia breaks down as his affection for Rita develops. Russell does this to show how the life of the educator who is clearly trapped in a hopeless cycle is likewise evolving. The zones that Rita examines show how she has advanced. At the point when she starts to frame her own thoughts which would stand their ground in an assessment, Frank doesn't welcome it, he believes that the advancement

Friday, August 21, 2020

ACT Score for the Ivy League Whats the Lowest Score I Can Get in With

What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for the Ivy League What's the Lowest Score I Can Get in With SAT/ACT Prep Online Guides and Tips Is it true that you are planning to go to an Ivy League school? What ACT/SAT scores do Ivy League colleges Brown, Columbia, Cornell, Dartmouth, Harvard, Princeton, Penn, and Yale-anticipate? Here, we see what grades these eight profoundly particular schools think about great, just as what scores are viewed as fringe. Disclaimer: SAT/ACT Scores Aren't Everything At the point when you apply to an Ivy League school, they'll be taking a gander at numerous other confirmation factors past simply your SAT or ACT score. Actually, if you somehow happened to solicit any from these schools' chiefs of affirmations whether an ideal score would promise you confirmation, the appropriate response would be a major, fat NO. You need in excess of an ideal SAT or ACT score to get into an Ivy League school. Ivy League schools search for solid grades just as solid proposals, extracurriculars, and GPAs, which I'll call Different Factors. If you have an incredible SAT/ACT score, at that point you can pull off simply superb Other Factors. In case you're at the base of the range, however, you'll certainly require a whiz rating in Other Factors. Remember this as you read this article. Select Free Bonus: Click here to download a free bit by bit manage on finding your own SAT/ACT score target. When you experience these means, you'll know precisely what score you have to focus on. What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for the Ivy League? A SAT score of 1580 (out of 1600) or ACT score of 35 (out of 36) will put you directly in the top 25% for most Ivy League schools, while a SAT score of 1450 or ACT score of 31 would put you at the limit of the base 25%. Subsequently, you can decipher your score as follows: 1580 SAT/35 ACT or higher: You don't have to improve your SAT/ACT scores. Work on ensuring that you don't have any shortcomings in the remainder of your school application. 1450 SAT/31 ACT or lower: Your SAT/ACT score will be restricting. You have to improve your score, and simultaneously ensure you have in any event one extra very solid segment in your school application. Look at our guide on how to manage a low ACT/SAT score for tips. Presently, we should take a gander at the 25th and 75th percentile SAT/ACT scores for all Ivy League schools: School Name 75% SAT 25% SAT 75% ACT 25% ACT Harvard 1590 1460 35 32 Yale 1590 1420 35 32 Columbia 1580 1450 35 32 Princeton 1570 1430 35 31 Earthy colored 1570 1410 34 31 Dartmouth 1560 1430 34 30 Penn 1560 1420 35 32 Cornell 1550 1390 34 31 In case you're scoring lower than the 25th percentile on either the SAT or ACT, you'll have an extremely intense time getting acknowledged to an Ivy League school. Sadly, you just won't match the various exceptionally qualified candidates who have incredibly great SAT/ACT scores. Obviously, these are exclusive expectations. Truth be told, all 75th percentile scores for Ivy League schools are in the 99th percentile across the country. To be at the highest point of the Ivy League application pool, you should be one of the top 1% of test takers in the nation! What's a Good SAT/ACT Score for YOU? While these SAT/ACT scores for the Ivy League can be utilized as standard rules, everybody has an alternate objective score. This implies you'll have to know the SAT/ACT score focus on that is directly for you. Be that as it may, how would you make sense of this? Your objective SAT/ACT score will be founded on the universities you're applying to. You'll have to locate the normal SAT/ACT scores of conceded understudies for all the schools you're keen on joining in, explicitly their 75th percentile scores. Focusing on the 75th percentile will give you the most obvious opportunity with regards to getting into all the schools on your rundown. You can discover SAT/ACT scores and percentile data for a school by visiting its confirmation page or by Googling [School Name] PrepScholar SAT/ACT For instance, in the event that you needed to comprehend what the normal SAT scores for NYU were, you'd Google NYU PrepScholar SAT. When you've discovered these scores for all the schools you're considering applying to, locate the most elevated 75th percentile score on your rundown; that is the objective score you'll be focusing on. For a more top to bottom clarification and access to clear diagrams you can use to monitor schools' SAT/ACT scores, click the connection underneath and enter your email address-you'll get a free bit by bit control on the most proficient method to compute your own SAT/ACT objective score. What's Next? Need master tips on the best way to get into the Ivy League? Peruse our well known guide on the most proficient method to get into Harvard and the Ivy League, composed by a Harvard alum. Inquisitive how Ivy League schools contrast and each other? Investigate our inside and out examination of the Ivy League rankings, and realize what these numbers mean for you. What's a decent SAT/ACT score for non-Ivy League schools? Our far reaching guides clarify what great ACT scores and great SAT scores are, contingent upon the schools you're applying to. Need to improve your SAT score by 160 or your ACT score by 4? Look at our top tier online SAT and ACT prep classes. We ensure your cash back on the off chance that you don't improve your SAT score by 160+ focuses or your ACT score by 4+ focuses. Our classes are totally on the web, and they're instructed by specialists. In the event that you preferred this article, you'll love our classes. Alongside master drove classes, you'll get customized schoolwork with a huge number of training issues sorted out by singular abilities so you learn most viably. We'll additionally give you a bit by bit, custom program to follow so you'll never be confounded about what to concentrate straightaway. Attempt it chance free today:

Thursday, May 28, 2020

School Violence and Security - Free Essay Example

School violence has been on for a while now; the only difference is that now is worse. Schools should be a safe environment where kids can go learn, and feel secure. Kids nor parents should feel scared when their kids are in school. Schools safety should always be a concern. I believe gun control will not make any change because you do not need a gun to commit a crime, adolescents now are given permission by the parent to carry a knife for self-defense but honestly, they use it whenever they want, if they are triggered by bullying, cyberbullying, harassment or other reasons, they may act up and feel in control. Banning all guns is not a solution to gun violence, since America is already saturated with firearms. (McGoey, 2007). As mentioned above this will not prevent shootings. Now it is not necessarily bought at a gun store, it can be bought from a friend, online, etc. Weapons are meat to stay where they belong in war, lets keep our schools safe from violence. Schools should have highly trained securities just in case something happens they can protect our students. Tom, Dylans father told the press about how his son had never shown interest in gun, he was well spoken about, based on his teacher and friends he was a nice and normal teenager. A research was then made; the press later on found out that he was a target of bullying and cyberbullying. Have you ever asked yourself what effect this brings to teenagers? There has been more shootings in side a school than outside. Dinken, Kemp and Baum prove it, For the first time, violent crimes victimization among young people at schools are (26 per 1,000), and are higher than the rates away from school (20 per 1,000 students). Safety is and will always be a concern at schools, for parents and even the students. According to Bennet, gun control will stop schools shootings, Preventing guns from falling into the wrong hands, will control and decrease the percentage of shootings schools. Banning guns is not enough to stop violence and shootings. Guns, children and school should never be used in the same sentence. People have a burning passion for guns, they will do anything to get one, now we see a 15 year old with a gun and its normal according to Bennett this is normal because its for own protection, what is this generation teaching these kids, having a gun, knife is normal. Approximately, 100 million adults live in a home with a gun. Guns it is like a toy for some. Young kids should not own a gun or be near one, guns should not be sold to adolescents. These do not know sometimes what they are doing; some may act out of anger. Something that kids are in 24/7 are video games, these can make a huge impact these games are not productive it shows kids how to kill and they get to the point where maybe he/she might want to try it in real life and take it on innocent kids. These games are in fact, a graphic shooting video game where kids are taught how to seek out and destroy everything in the path displaying the blood and guts in vivid color, 3D with stereo sound effects. Is this generation only learning violence? Parents should watch very closely what their kids do and watch this may affect and can cause harm to others without knowing the consequences afterwards. Even 6 year olds play this online games, that by the way are very time consuming they can spent hours playing, in this case parents are guilty because they do not put a stop to it. Kids especially teens should be controlled, meaning parents monitoring everything they do and see. Friends are another reason, whom your kid hangs out with, that is the ques tion they can influence in a positive way just as they can in a negative way. Securities play a big role in schools; they are responsible for every single student, they should be in constant vigilance for any weird movement or anything out of the ordinary. Even if they want to secure the classrooms with high tech locks for classroom doors to bulletproof whiteboards and backpacks, they will never know who is in the classroom. I still dont understand how the author Bennett is saying gun control can stop shootings, Im very clear in my point on why gun control wont make any difference in schools or in general. Arming the right guys can keep our community safe. How do you know who is the right person. He also said, it is safer to armed guards and give teachers gun training. I completely disagree, what if the teachers gets frustrated with a kid, gets extremely mad and decide to shoot. Gun should stay away from kids. The only reason people own gun is to kill, maybe some say is for self-protection,, sadly this is the reason why most of the people own one, if you own a gun something happens for example someone is threating another person or yourself you know you have a gun youll somehow feel tempted to use it to protect yourself, but what happens if you do so, you are going to jail, that is why no one who is not authorized to own one should not have one not even at home where you have a kid. Guns is a big no. Evidence of the potential for violence is often found in a students home, on their computer, in their notebooks or in their locker at school. Another reason why a teen will like to own a gun is if he sees his friend with one, he/she will like to feel cool as well, so they will want one; nothing good comes out of that. That only causes fear to others. The only good about owning a gun is when the person who carrys it is permitted, then will cause less deaths because it will lower the damage caus e by crazy psycho people. However, if one to five people want safety for our community we have to remember there are millions who want to hurt others, and our schools are suffering, why dont we fight for safety instead of living scared all the time? Children can own machine guns. Bennett said. Children should stay away from guns. Third, the most common age of those who commit crimes with guns is 19, followed by 20, followed by 18, despite the fact that licensed dealers are not permitted to sell handguns to anyone under 21. My question is, why does a 15 year old owns one, well the buy from other who dont care about anyones safety, the majority of our people are allowed to own guns but are so many that arent but they still do. Lets keep our schools safe, lets make our world a little bit better.

Saturday, May 16, 2020

The Evolution of the First Tetrapods

Its one of the iconic images of evolution: 400 or so million years ago, way back in the prehistoric mists of geologic time, a brave fish crawls laboriously out of the water and onto land, representing the first wave of a vertebrate invasion that leads to dinosaurs, mammals, and human beings. Logically speaking, of course, we dont owe any more thanks to the first tetrapod (Greek for four feet) than we do to the first bacterium or the first sponge, but something about this plucky critter still tugs at our heartstrings. As is so often the case, this romantic image doesnt quite match up with evolutionary reality. Between 350 and 400 million years ago, various prehistoric fish crawled out of the water at various times, making it nearly impossible to identify the direct ancestor of modern vertebrates. In fact, many of the most celebrated early tetrapods had seven or eight digits at the end of each limb and, because modern animals adhere strictly to the five-toed body plan, that means these tetrapods represented an evolutionary dead end from the perspective of the prehistoric amphibians that followed them. Origins The earliest tetrapods evolved from lobe-finned fishes, which differed in important ways from ray-finned fishes. While ray-finned fishes are the most common type of fish in the ocean  today, the only lobe-finned fish on the planet are lungfish and coelacanths, the latter of which were thought to have gone extinct tens of millions of years ago until a live specimen turned up in 1938. The bottom fins of lobe-finned fishes are arranged in pairs and supported by internal bones—the necessary conditions for these fins to evolve into primitive legs. Lobe-finned fishes of the Devonian period were already able to breathe air, when necessary, via spiracles in their skulls. Experts differ about the environmental pressures  that prompted lobe-finned fish to evolve into walking, breathing tetrapods, but one theory is that the shallow lakes and rivers these fish lived in were subject to drought, favoring species that could survive in dry conditions. Another theory has it that the earliest tetrapods were literally chased out of the water by bigger fish—dry land harbored an abundance of insect and plant food, and a marked absence of dangerous predators. Any lobe-finned fish that blundered onto land would have found itself in a veritable paradise. In evolutionary terms, its hard to distinguish between the most advanced lobe-finned fish and the most primitive tetrapods. Three important genera nearer the fish end of the spectrum were Eusthenopteron, Panderichthys, and Osteolopis, which spent all of their time in the water yet had latent tetrapod characteristics. Until recently, these tetrapod ancestors nearly all hailed from fossil deposits in the northern Atlantic, but the discovery of Gogonasus in Australia has put the kibosh on the theory that land-dwelling animals originated in the northern hemisphere. Early Tetrapods and Fishapods Scientists once agreed that the earliest true tetrapods dated from about 385 to 380 million years ago. That has all changed with the recent discovery of tetrapod track marks in Poland that date to 397 million years ago, which would effectively dial back the evolutionary calendar by 12 million years. If confirmed, this discovery will prompt some revision in the evolutionary consensus. As you can see, tetrapod evolution is far from written in stone—tetrapods evolved numerous times, in different places. Still, there are a few early tetrapod species that are regarded as more-or-less definitive by experts. The most important of these is Tiktaalik, which is thought to have been perched midway between the tetrapod-like lobe-finned fishes and the later, true tetrapods. Tiktaalik was blessed with the primitive equivalent of wrists—which may have helped it to prop itself up on its stubby front fins along the edges of shallow lakes—as well as a true neck, providing it with much-needed flexibility and mobility during its quick jaunts onto dry land. Because of its mix of tetrapod and fish characteristics, Tiktaalik is often referred to as a fishapod, a name that is also sometimes applied to advanced lobe-finned fish like Eusthenopteron and Panderichthys. Another important fishapod was Ichthyostega, which lived about five million years after Tiktaalik and achieved similarly respectable sizes—about five feet long and 50 pounds. True Tetrapods Until the recent discovery of Tiktaalik, the most famous of all the early tetrapods was Acanthostega, which dated to about 365 million years ago. This slender creature had relatively well-developed limbs, as well as such fishy features as a lateral sensory line running along the length of its body. Other, similar tetrapods of this general time and place included Hynerpeton, Tulerpeton, and Ventastega. Paleontologists once believed that these late Devonian tetrapods spent significant amounts of their time on dry land, but they are now thought to have been primarily or even totally aquatic, only using their legs and primitive breathing apparatuses when absolutely necessary. The most significant finding about these tetrapods was the number of digits on their front and hind limbs: anywhere from 6 to 8, a strong indication that they couldnt have been the ancestors of later five-toed tetrapods and their mammalian, avian, and reptilian descendants. Romers Gap Theres a 20-million-year-long stretch of time in the early Carboniferous period that has yielded very few vertebrate fossils. Known as Romers Gap, this blank period in the fossil record has been used to support Creationist doubt in the theory of evolution, but it is easily explainable by the fact that fossils only form in very special conditions. Romers Gap particularly affects our knowledge of tetrapod evolution because, when we pick up the story 20 million years later (about 340 million years ago), there is a profusion of tetrapod species that can be grouped into different families, some coming very close to being true amphibians. Among the notable post-gap tetrapods are the tiny Casineria, which had five-toed feet; the eel-like Greererpeton, which may already have de-evolved from its more land-oriented tetrapod ancestors; and the salamander-like Eucritta melanolimnetes, otherwise known as the creature from the Black Lagoon, from Scotland. The diversity of later tetrapods is evidence that a lot must have happened, evolution-wise, during Romers Gap. Fortunately, we have been able to fill in some of the blanks of Romers Gap in recent years. The skeleton of Pederpes was discovered in 1971 and, three decades later, further investigation by tetrapod expert Jennifer Clack dated it smack to the middle of Romers Gap. Significantly, Pederpes had forward-facing feet with five toes and a narrow skull, characteristics seen in later amphibians, reptiles, and mammals. A similar species active during Romers Gap was the large-tailed Whatcheeria, which seems to have spent most of its time in the water.

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Mountain Dew - 2117 Words

Corporate background Mountain Dew has been through many changes since it was introduced in 1942. It started out as a yellow-green drink in a green bottle that had a rush of citrus flavor and more sugar and caffeine than any other soft drink. During the introduction of Mountain Dew it was well known throughout the Eastern seaboard. At this time the objectives was to gain market share. Mountain Dew became popular because of the stock car racing circuit known as NASCAR. During the 1960s Mountain Dew’s objective was too continued with its heritage from where it originated and began having characters such as Willie to promote the brand. By the 1970s the Mountain Dew brand was assigned BBDO, and the objective for the ad agency was to†¦show more content†¦Also another opportunity is to come up with a new target market to reach new consumers. The number one threat is the innovation of new drink categories that is stealing away market share from Mountain Dew. Not being able tot stay competitive in this category can make or break a company. I think that the major competitors of Mountain Dew are faced with this same issue. I’m sure they are coming up with new ideas to compete with the new products and drink categories. Target Market Coming up with a target market that is consistent with Mountain Dew varies from decade to decade. Each Decade brings new cultural trend. Mountain Dew has done an excellent job at keeping up with these trends and targeting consumers that make their product something they can relate too. Right now Mountain Dew’s target market is male teens 18 years of age. Also trying to keep the brand appealing and create a cross-over appeal among the 20-39 year old males. The type of buyer that Mountain Dew is targeting is one who has an exhilarating lifestyle and associated with extreme sports. The characteristics of this buyer would be a male in his teens that wants to fit in and be associated with sports. Also this buyer wants to make you think he lives life on the edge and drinks carbonated soft drinks for energy. Mountain Dew’s marketing mix is strong due to the continual growth in sales. TheShow MoreRelatedMountain Dew Case Study1595 Words   |  7 PagesWha t is the ad campaign of Mountain Dew that created awareness to its consumers? What is the impact of the Mountain Dew Ad campaign to its prospective customers? How did Pepsi Cola Company respond to the growing threat of non-carbonated soft drinks, especially energy drinks and tea? ANSWERS: In 1992, senior management at PepsiCo sensed an opportunity to increase business on Diet Mountain Dew. Diet Mountain {draw:frame} Dews distribution was limited mostlyRead MoreMountain Dew998 Words   |  4 PagesMountain Dew: Selecting New Creative Introduction â€Å"Do the Dew!† This was a long time tag line for the Mountain Dew brand. 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From those 3, theRead MoreMarketing Report on Mountain Dew8655 Words   |  35 PagesReport Of Mountain Dew Introduction: Company Description PepsiCo, Inc. is among the most successful consumer products companies in the world, with 1999 revenues of over $20 billion and 116,000 employees. The company consists of: Frito-Lay Company, the largest manufacturer and distributor of snack chips; Pepsi-Cola Company, the second largest soft drink business and Tropicana Products, the largest marketer and producer of branded juice. PepsiCo brands are among the best known and most respectedRead MoreMountain Dew: Market Analysis988 Words   |  4 PagesMountain Dew Mountain Dew is a sugary green drink that has quenched the thirst of millions of Americans for decades, practically ensuring its place as 20th century Americana. The brand originated as an early energizing drink that would keep mountain trekkers powered through their hikes and outdoor activities. Since these humble times, Mountain Dew has maintained an image of a very rural American drink, satisfying customers through vending machines and convenience. In the 21st century, howeverRead MoreRacism And Sexism : The Mountain Dew1004 Words   |  5 Pagesthese issues of racism and sexism especially violence against women, and how they systematically affect specific subsets of people. The Mountain Dew commercial is one of three, the very last commercial. It opens with a line-up of men and a goat. The woman is asked by the police officer to point to the assailant. The purpose of the paper is to analyze the Mountain Dew ad â€Å"Nasty Goat† from a cultural studies perspective by criti quing the criminalization of African American men as well as violence againstRead MoreThe Worst Month Ever?890 Words   |  4 Pagesme what I was doing. I told her I was watching TLC. After I told her, she told me that I was watching men. I was confused, but I remembered that she was not in her right mind. While I was sitting beside her, she told me told put the lid on her Mountain Dew bottle, so I did. Then she asked me to do it again and again, even though it was already screwed on. I went to the living room. I started believing that she is ready to go home to God, so when I got home that night, I prayed and prayed. I told

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Moral Relativism free essay sample

The world is becoming an increasingly smaller place, culturally speaking. The modern world has more bridges to other cultures and ways of thinking than ever before. This phenomenon is due largely to the advent of the internet, global industry, and increased travel for business and pleasure to opposite corners of the world. This â€Å"global village† we live in introduces the average person to more cultural, and seemingly moral, differences than previous generations experienced. Ruth Benedict’s â€Å"Case for Moral Relativism† claims beliefs and practices form irrationally and randomly, creating a world where no one morality is ‘better’ than any other morality. In this paper, I will discuss moral relativism and cultural relativism, and how they relate to each other. Further, in discussion of Pojman’s objectivism, ‘holes’ in the relativist moral theory will rear their ugly heads. I believe there is a middle ground between the two theories, Objectivism and Relativism, and that tolerance is not always a bad thing. Moral relativism is often equated with cultural relativism. However, anthropologists cringe at this notion, as defended by Thomas Johnson in his essay, â€Å"Cultural Relativism: Interpretations of a Concept. † Johnson argues that true cultural relativism should not â€Å"†¦prevent an educated person from taking a stand on a variety of moral issues†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Johnson 794). Rather, cultural relativism is a tool for the objective study of a different culture and leads â€Å"†¦to a much stronger notion of moral values, values that can and should be acted upon†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Johnson 795). This view differs from Bendedict’s moral relativism in that while cultural relativism is a tool from which moral attitudes and actions may stem, moral relativism maintains all cultures are equal, and therefore all cultures and cultural practices must be tolerated. Benedict is not alone in her biased presumptions. In his article, â€Å"In Defense of Relativism,† Frank Oppenheim asserts, â€Å"A relativist may, without inconsistency, favor discrimination or equality, and practice intolerance, tolerance, or over-tolerance† (Oppenheim 416). This suggests that a wide range of relativists hold these contradicting views, and give each equal weight, without assigning a concept of ‘right’ or ‘wrong’ to any single view. The cornerstone of Benedict’s moral relativism is that people are malleable (164), and will accept anything if it is institutionalized. She cites examples of ‘abnormal’ behavior and practices in Western society, namely, homosexuality, trance, and catalepsy, which have been accepted and promoted in cultures such as Ancient Greece, some Native American tribes, and even in the glorification of mystics and stigmatists in the Catholic Church. Moral taboos, as well as accepted practices, according to moral relativism, are the products of institutionalization. Since this is a random and irrational process, no one morality is better than another. Herein lies the one absolute of moral relativism: tolerance. In Pojman’s â€Å"The Case Against Moral Relativism,† he divides ethical (moral) relativism into subsections, one of which is entitled â€Å"The Diversity Thesis. † This thesis, another name for cultural relativism, Pojman explains, presupposes that there are few similarities between cultures, achieving the normal and abnormal extreme cases Benedict cites. Pojman references the work of Clyde Kuckholn, highlighting the numerous similarities between cultures, â€Å"Every culture has a concept of murder, distinguishing this from execution, killing in war and other ‘justifiable homicides. ’ The notions of incest†¦the prohibitions upon untruth under defined circumstances , of restitution and reciprocity, of mutual obligations between parents and children – these and many other moral concepts are altogether universal† (Pojman 178). Although different societies can come up with some ‘out there’ moral practices, basic values and codes of conduct share the same themes across cultures. The view Benedict supports, one which â€Å"†¦recognize[s] that morality differs in every society†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (Benedict 163) ignores the common emphasis different cultures place on the aforementioned moral concepts. In Pojman’s evaluation of relativism, he makes the concession â€Å"†¦the objectivist could concede complete cultural relativism, but still defend a form of universalism† (Pojman 178). Cultural relativism and diversity is not in itself ethical relativism, merely the palette of examples that seem to support it. Pojman makes the distinction between moral belief and substantive moral principle. While two cultures may hold the killing of innocent persons to the highest degree of abhorrence, they may differ on what constitutes a person, whether it is a fetus or a deranged serial killer, with drastically different moral implications. Relativism seeks to use the existence of differing moral view s on a subject between cultures as evidence for its theory, when the moral views are common with differing applications of the belief. While I agree with Benedict that people are malleable, and we tend to follow the crowd in moral issues, her explanation of relativism appears biased. There is no mention of the opposing view, that cultures from different corners of the globe place similar emphasis on the same moral concepts, simply emphasized in a different order. Benedict also fails to recognize the common human experience, namely, human nature. Pojman defines this common experience in simple terms; humans have a ‘common set of needs and interests’ (Pojman 185). To Benedict, societal structure is rooted in chance, morality in the ‘opinion of the majority. ’ The unfortunate consequence of this mentality is primarily the condemnation of ‘social deviants’ (Benedict 164). If the whole world population took on a true relativist view, heroes of justice, Jane Addams, Martin Luther King Jr. Ghandi, Frederick Douglass, Harriet Tubman, even Robin Hood, lose their place on the pedestal of ‘ideal’ morality or social conscience. These individuals fought against the ‘norms’ of society, in the name of equality and justice. Relativism does not allow for counter-culture affirmative action, this moral theory promotes passive ethics. Relativism makes no judgments, and therefore, relativists are no t inclined to ‘fight for what’s right’ because through the lens of absolute tolerance, there is nothing to fight against; right and wrong are relative. Pojman’s objections to relativism center upon the existence of common human nature and experience, and that â€Å"†¦it is possible to communicate cross-culturally and find that we agree on many of the important things in life† (Pojman 181). This correlates to the idea of common moral concepts among different cultures and societies. In this common experience of â€Å"needs and interests† (Pojman 185), it stands to reason that certain moral practices will better serve needs and interests than others. This contrasts greatly with Benedict’s all cultures are equal proposal. Benedict makes a valid argument that people develop moral codes as a result of their culture. There is no right or wrong way to develop a society, the only tried and true method is trial and error. Yet, perhaps certain cultures do not experience â€Å"better† ways of making moral decisions to increase the fulfillment of their needs and interests. It’s possible no culture has found these â€Å"better† ways, the advantage to relativism is that we can appreciate the attempt. The flipside is that relativism tends to view other cultures in comparison to the relativist’s native culture, defining ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ as seen through that culture instead of the studied culture. Pojman’s objectivism offers a step back from the situation, allowing the questions, â€Å"Does this moral concept or action better the society or the individual? † and â€Å"Do these values and practices promote fulfillment of human needs and interests? † Recognition of cultural diversity in moral norms, beliefs, and practices is valuable in our modern ‘global village. In this context, some principles of moral relativism are valid: people are products of their society and culture, there are always social deviants, and ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ behaviors are perceived in every culture. However, the existence of these ‘truths’ do not prove the theory of moral relativism. Pojman refines the se observed qualities of human cultures and connects them to a common set of human needs and interests. Every societal and moral system can trace its original purpose to the intent to fulfill those needs and interests. In this way there is no relativism, only differing applications of moral concepts. In May of 2007, the Vatican pegged â€Å"moral relativism† as â€Å"a serious threat to humanity† (Fellowship of St James 43), crediting the apparent downward spiral of morality in America to an increase in acceptance of moral relativism. I contend that this acceptance of moral relativism is really a cry of lethargy from the masses. Moral relativism is the lazy way to defend your apathy on moral issues. Objectivism offers a more proactive alternative in our ever changing, every shrinking world.